Skip to search form Skip to main content. View on Wiley. Save to Library.
Sex differences in humans have been studied in a variety of fields. In humans, biological sex is determined by five factors present at birth: the presence or absence of a Y chromosomethe type of gonadsthe sex hormonesthe internal reproductive anatomy such as the uterusand the external genitalia. Phenotypic sex refers to an individual's sex as determined by their internal and external genitalia, expression of secondary sex characteristics, and behavior.
A major development in biomedical research is the recognition that the sex of an individual plays a key role in susceptibility, treatment, and outcomes of most diseases. In this contribution, we present evidence that sex is also important in the toxicity of many environmental toxicants and contributes to the effect of genetics. Thus, individual differences in response to toxicants includes genetic makeup, the environment and sex; in fact, sex differences may be considered a part of genetic constitution.
Sex differences in psychology are differences in the mental functions and behaviors of the sexes, and are due to a complex interplay of biologicaldevelopmentaland cultural factors. Differences have been found in a variety of fields such as mental healthcognitive abilitiespersonalityemotionsexuality  and tendency towards aggression. Such variation may be innate or learned and is often very difficult to distinguish.
Sex differences in the human brain are of interest for many reasons: for example, there are sex differences in the observed prevalence of psychiatric disorders and in some psychological traits that brain differences might help to explain. We report the largest single-sample study of structural and functional sex differences in the human brain female, male participants; mean age Males had higher raw volumes, raw surface areas, and white matter fractional anisotropy; females had higher raw cortical thickness and higher white matter tract complexity.
Ten years later, the National Institute of Mental Health convened a workshop titled Sex Differences in Brain, Behavior, Mental Health and Mental Disorders and concluded 1 there is a paucity of research examining sex differences at a neurobiological and mechanistic level; 2 there are pervasive sex differences in the brain, and 3 there is a need for more neuroscientists to incorporate sex as a variable in experimental designs National Institute of Mental Health, There are important sex differences in cognitive and emotional responses relevant to learning and memory, language, fear, anxiety and nociception, as well as the risk and consequences of traumatic brain injury, stroke, and the neurodegenerative diseases Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, ALS, and Huntington's. Neurological disorders such as dyslexia and stuttering are three to four times more frequent in boys than girls, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is diagnosed 10 times more often in boys.
Unlike any other scientific journal, Biology of Sex Differences focuses on sex differences in physiology, behavior, and disease, from molecules to phenotypes, and incorporates basic and clinical research. The journal aims to improve understanding of basic principles and foster development of therapeutic and diagnostic tools that are specific for sex differences. Sujoy GhoshJessica L. TaylorTamra M.
Most of us have been raised with pretty simplistic ideas about sex and gender. Namely, that there are two sexes, male and female, and that they align with two genders, man and woman. But with the increased visibility of transgender, gender non-conforming, and nonbinary folks, many people are beginning to understand that the categories of sex and gender are far more complicated.