The DNA genetic material of a developing stem cell in the bone marrow is damaged. As a result, the number of healthy blood cells red cells, white cells and platelets is usually lower than normal. Doctors don't know why some cells become hairy cells and others don't.
Home Blood cancer information Leukaemia Hairy cell leukaemia. Hairy cell leukaemia HCL is a rare type of chronic leukaemia of the lymphoid system, in which abnormal B-lymphocytes accumulate in the bone marrow, liver and spleen. B lymphocytes also known as B-cells are specialised white blood cells.
Hairy cell leukemia cells, which appear as the darker cells in this photo, are surrounded by a halo of fine projections villi. To diagnose hairy cell leukemia, your doctor may take a sample of bone marrow from your body and examine it under a microscope to look for hairy cells. Hairy cell leukemia is a rare, slow-growing cancer of the blood in which your bone marrow makes too many B cells lymphocytesa type of white blood cell that fights infection.
This section is an overview of the information on this page. There is more detail in the sections below. It is slow-growing and usually responds very well to treatment.
It depends on your individual condition, treatment and level of fitness. Statistics for this type of leukaemia are harder to estimate than for other, more common leukaemias. Some of the statistics have to be based on a small number of people.
Progression of patients with HCL is based on a large splenomegaly, leukocytosis, a high number of hairy cells in the peripheral blood and the immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region gene mutational status. The use of PNA followed by rituximab represents an alternative option. An immunological score was proposed with one point given to each of the last four markers when they are expressed and no point when they are not expressed.
The US Food and Drug Administration has approved moxetumomab pasudotox for the treatment of adults with relapsed or refractory hairy cell leukemia HCL who have received at least two prior systemic therapies, including treatment with a purine nucleoside analog. Approval was based on a single-arm phase III clinical trial involving 80 patients with relapsed or refractory HCL who had received at least two prior systemic therapies including at least one purine nucleoside analog. Approval comes with a black box warning for capillary leak syndrome and hemolytic uremic syndrome, which are potentially life-threatening adverse effects of treatment. HCL is a rare indolent leukemia that affects B cells, and it can be life-threatening.
HCL is caused when bone marrow makes too many B cells lymphocytesa type of white blood cell that fights infection. As the number of leukemia cells increases, fewer healthy white blood cells, red blood cells and platelets are produced. This type of leukemia gets its name from the way the cells look under the microscope—with fine fragments that make them look "hairy.
Hairy cell leukemia is an uncommon hematological malignancy characterized by an accumulation of abnormal B lymphocytes. Hairy cell leukemia was originally described as histiocytic leukemia, malignant reticulosis, or lymphoid myelofibrosis in publications dating back to the s. The disease was formally named leukemic reticuloendotheliosis and its characterization significantly advanced by Bertha Bouroncle and colleagues at The Ohio State University College of Medicine in Its common name, which was coined in is derived from the "hairy" appearance of the malignant B cells under a microscope.